Altenburg is a city in Perry County, Missouri. The population was 352 as of the 2010 United States Census. Altenburg (German for "Old Castle") was named after the Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg, from where many of its settlers came, and not the city of Altenburg which apparently did not send a single colonist to the area.
Altenburg is one of seven towns and villages in the area founded by German Lutheran immigrants in 1839. It and the others - Dresden, Frohna, Johannisberg (now New Wells), Paitzdorf (now Uniontown), Seelitz (abandoned), and Wittenberg - were all named by settlers for towns in the Saxony region of their native country. These settlers would form the backbone of what would later become the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod.
Soon after arriving, the immigrants constructed a school in Altenburg. Made of native timber, this "Log Cabin College" introduced the new idea of a co-ed school. Today, Altenburg is home to the Lutheran Heritage Center and Museum, established in 1985.
Altenburg Public School District #48 serves the citizens of Altenburg, as well as two Lutheran schools. Every year, the city hosts the very popular East Perry Community Fair (otherwise known as the "Altenburg Fair").